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  • The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Program at Rhode Island Hospital

  • Scales and Measures

  • Please use the links below to access self-report questionnaires:
    Adults
    Adolescents  

    We have developed some of the most widely used questionnaires and rater-administered scales to assess BDD in research and clinical settings. The rater-administered scales can be used by researchers or clinicians. The questionnaire (BDDQ) can be used by researchers, clinicians, or individuals who wonder if they may have BDD.

    Researchers may use our scales at no charge. But please keep in mind that all of our scales are copyrighted and cannot be altered or modified in any way. Scales can be translated into other languages; however, we request that the translated version be translated back into English by someone other than the person who did the initial translation. We appreciate the opportunity to review the back-translation and request that you please send us both the translated version and the back-translated version for review prior to use. If researchers cite our measures we request that you cite the references below.

    Except for the BDDQ, all of our scales are rater-administered or clinician-administered. They are not intended to be used as self-report questionnaires. We are not aware of any published data on these measures’ reliability, validity, or sensitivity to change when used as self-report questionnaires, and we therefore request that they not be used as self-reports. The person administering them should be familiar with BDD and ideally have some training prior to administering them.

    BDD Diagnostic Module

    • Diagnoses BDD
    • Rater-administered, semi-structured instrument modeled after the format used in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). The BDD Diagnostic Module maps onto DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for BDD. We have developed adolescent and adult (for age 18 and older) versions of this scale.
    • Takes about 10-15 minutes to administer
    • Scoring: BDD is present if DSM-IV criteria for BDD are met
    • Good interrater reliability
    • Reference: Katharine A. Phillips, M.D. The Broken Mirror: Understanding and Treating Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Revised and Expanded Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005

    We plan to update this scale to make it more compatible with the recently published BDD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5.

    Download

    BDD Diagnostic Module- For Adults (PDF 20KB)

    BDD Diagnostic Module- For Adolescents (PDF 80KB)

    Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD-YBOCS)

    • Rates the current (past week) severity of BDD
    • 12-item rater-administered, semi-structured instrument that is modeled after the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale for obsessive-compulsive disorder. We have developed adolescent and adult (for age 18 and older) versions of this scale.
    • Takes about 15 minutes to administer
    • Scoring: Scores range from 0-48, with higher scores indicating more severe BDD. A score of 20 or higher is the cutpoint for a diagnosis of BDD. Scores lower than 20 reflect subclinical, or subthreshold, BDD.
    • Good interrater and test-retest reliability, strong internal consistency, good convergent and discriminant validity, sensitive to change
    • References:
      • Phillips KA, Hollander E, Rasmussen SA, Aronowitz BR, DeCaria C, Goodman WK. A severity rating scale for body dysmorphic disorder: development, reliability, and validity of a modified version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale.Psychopharmacology Bulletin1997;33:17-22
      • Katharine A. Phillips, M.D. The Broken Mirror: Understanding and Treating Body Dysmorphic Disorder.Revised and Expanded Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005
       

    Download

    Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD- For Adults (PDF 40KB)

    Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD- For Adolescents (PDF 40KB)

    Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS)

    • Assesses current (past week) insight/delusionality of inaccurate beliefs. The BABS can be used to assess inaccurate beliefs in a variety of disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, psychotic depression, eating disorders, olfactory reference syndrome, and schizophrenia. In BDD, the BABS assesses the person’s insight regarding their belief about the perceived appearance flaws – for example, “I look ugly.”
    • 7-item rater-administered, semi-structured scale. With Jane Eisen, M.D., and other colleagues, we have developed adolescent and adult (for age 18 and older) versions of this scale.
    • Takes about 10 minutes to administer
    • Scoring: The BABS provides a dimensional score that ranges from 0 to 24, with higher scores reflecting poorer insight/greater delusionality. The BABS also categorizes beliefs according to different levels of insight/delusionality:
      • Score of 4 on item 1 (conviction) plus a total score of 18 or higher on items 1-6 = absent insight/delusional beliefs
      • Total score of 13–17 on items 1–6 = poor insight (a total score of 18 or higher plus a score of 0-3 on item 1 also = poor insight)
      • Total score of 8-12 on items 1-6 = fair insight
      • Total score of 4-7 on items 1–6 = good insight
      • Total score of 0–3 on items 1–6 = excellent insight
      • Please note that item 7 is NOT included when scoring this scale
       
    • Good interrater and test-retest reliability, strong internal consistency, good convergent and discriminant validity, sensitive to change
    • References:
      • Eisen JL, Phillips KA, Baer L, Beer DA, Atala KD, Rasmussen SA. The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale: reliability and validity.American Journal of Psychiatry 1998;155:102-108
      • Phillips KA, Hart A, Menard W, Eisen JL. Psychometric evaluation of the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale in body dysmorphic disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 2013;201:640-643
       

    Download

    Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS)- For Adults (PDF 30KB)

    Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS)- For Adolescents (PDF 30KB)

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ)

    • Screens for the presence of BDD. The BDDQ is not meant to diagnose BDD (which the BDD Diagnostic Module does). It can help a person determine whether they may have BDD and decide whether to see a clinician to determine whether they do in fact have BDD.
    • A brief self-report questionnaire that maps onto DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for BDD. We have developed adolescent and adult (for age 18 or older) versions of this scale.
    • Takes 1–5 minutes to administer
    • Read more about scoring
    • Good sensitivity and specificity
    • Reference: Katharine A. Phillips, M.D. The Broken Mirror: Understanding and Treating Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Revised and Expanded Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005

    We plan to update this scale to make it more compatible with the recently published BDD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5.

    Download

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ)- For Adults (PDF 20KB)

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ)- For Adolescents (PDF 20KB)